Cherish every drop of water from the south
——Beijing strengthens water resources dispatch management and builds water safety lifeline
Author: Lee kept only Source: China Financial and Economic News Published: 2019-11-25
"Beijing is a very large city with severe water shortage. Water is the lifeblood and important cornerstone of the development of the capital city." Standing on the dam of the Miyun Reservoir, Liu Dagen, director of the Miyun Reservoir Management Office of the Beijing Water Affairs Bureau, told reporters with emotion.
As the largest reservoir in North China, Miyun Reservoir was completed and put into operation in 1960. Over the years, the reservoir has achieved outstanding results in flood control, water supply, fisheries, and power generation. It has played an important role in safeguarding the capital's economic construction, social development, and urban and rural residents' lives. Thanks to the clear water transported from the middle route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project, the latest water level of Miyun Reservoir has reached 149.28 meters and the water storage capacity is 2.62 billion cubic meters, which provides a strong guarantee for the people's domestic water use in the capital.
On the 5th anniversary of the official opening of the Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project, officials from relevant departments of the Ministry of Water Resources stated that the South-North Water Diversion Project is a major strategic infrastructure to alleviate the serious shortage of water resources in northern China and promote sustainable economic and social development. The first phase of the South-to-North Water Diversion Middle Line project was completed on December 12, 2014, and the river entered Beijing on the same month. In the past 5 years, Beijing has received a total of 5.203 billion cubic meters of water from the Danjiangkou Reservoir. The water quality has always been stable above Class II of the surface water environmental quality standard, and the city has directly benefited more than 12 million people.
Under the background of severe water shortage, "Ganlin" arrived as promised
According to statistics, Beijing's water resource endowment is inherently inadequate, and the per capita annual water resource is only about 100 cubic meters, which is far lower than the internationally recognized extreme water shortage warning line of 500 cubic meters. In order to balance the water supply gap, the city had to take measures such as over-exploiting groundwater and increasing the use of recycled water to ensure the safety of urban water supply.
With an average annual water resource volume of 2.1 billion cubic meters, Beijing has supported an average annual water demand of 3.6 billion cubic meters while paying huge resource and environmental costs. The strategic reserves of water resources have continued to decrease, and the water environment situation is severe. Half of the rivers have been suspended for years and the groundwater level has continued to decline. Before the river water entered Beijing from 1999 to the end of 2014, the city's groundwater dropped by an average of 1 meter per year.
With the decision-making and deployment of the Party Central Committee and the concerted efforts of all relevant parties, in September 2008, Beijing used the emergency water supply project of the Beijing-Shijiazhuang Section of the South-to-North Water Transfer Middle Line, which was completed earlier by the state. Diverting water into Beijing, 200 million-300 million cubic meters of water is transferred each year, and by April 2014, it has received 1.606 billion cubic meters of Hebei's incoming water.
In December 2014, the first phase of the South-to-North Water Diversion Middle Line project was completely open to water, with an average annual transfer of 1.05 billion cubic meters of water from the Danjiangkou Reservoir at the junction of Hubei and Henan. According to statistics, of 3.203 billion cubic meters of water entering the Jingjiang River, 3.488 billion cubic meters were used for water supply by the waterworks, accounting for nearly 70% of the amount of water in Beijing; and to local large and medium-sized water inventories such as Miyun, Huairou, Daning, and Shisanling The water in the river is 623 million cubic meters, and the rest is replenishing water to urban rivers and lakes and replenishing groundwater.
A benefit project, five comprehensive benefits
After the completion of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project, it has brought comprehensive benefits to Beijing in five aspects.
The first is to effectively alleviate the shortage of water resources in Beijing. After the river water enters Beijing at the end of 2014, Beijing transfers more than 1 billion cubic meters of water from the Danjiangkou Reservoir every year. Beijing ’s per capita water resources have increased from 100 cubic meters to 150 cubic meters, which has greatly eased the shortage of water resources in the capital and has effectively enhanced the city. Water supply security guarantee also provides water source support for key areas such as urban sub-centers and new airports.
The second is to build a more secure capital water supply system. After more than ten years of construction, the Beijing South-to-North Water Diversion Project has completed a water transfer loop. Together with the branch line project for transferring water to the east and west of the city and the Miyun Reservoir storage project, they have jointly constructed "surface water, groundwater, and external water transfer. The security guarantee pattern of the three-water joint adjustment, circular water delivery, radiant water supply, and efficient water use.
Third, the water conditions for residents have been greatly improved. At present, Nanshui of Beijing accounts for 70% of the total tap water supply in the urban area. The water supply basically covers the central urban area and parts of Daxing, Mentougou, Changping, Tongzhou, etc., and directly benefits more than 12 million people. The quality of the incoming water from the South-to-North Water Diversion Project is always excellent and stable above the surface water category II. Residents generally report that the tap water has reduced alkali. Based on sufficient south water protection, the city launched a large-scale self-provided well replacement project, adding more than 1.26 million citizens to drink municipal tap water, ensuring safer drinking water and better water quality.
The fourth is to significantly increase the strategic water resources reserve of the capital. After the river water entered Beijing, on the one hand, it replaced the Miyun Reservoir with river water to supply water to the waterworks, and reversely transported the south water to the Miyun Reservoir through the newly built Miyun Reservoir Storage Project, which effectively promoted the Miyun Reservoir's steadily increasing water storage and continuous water surface. The expansion has repeatedly reached new highs in water storage since 2000, increasing the strategic water resources reserve of the capital. On the other hand, experimental replenishment of conditional groundwater sources was carried out, and the water level rose significantly, which promoted the conservation and restoration of water sources.
Fifth, it effectively promoted the conservation and improvement of the aquatic ecological environment in the capital. After the river water entered Beijing, Beijing gradually closed its own wells and drastically reduced groundwater. Since 2016, the groundwater level in the Beijing Plain area has stopped falling and rising, and has maintained a steady and slowly rising trend. At the same time, by replacing Miyun, Guanting and other reservoirs to supply water to water plants, and storing southern water in some water inventories, the water area has been further expanded and the conservation of surface water resources has been promoted.
Strengthening Dispatching Management and Doing Water-saving Articles
"After Nanshui entered Beijing, the contradiction between water supply and demand in Beijing has been alleviated to a certain extent, but at this stage the shortage of water resources has not been fundamentally reversed, and water shortage is still the basic market situation that Beijing needs to face for a long time. The good opportunities brought by the project must be well planned, utilized and stored in the river water resources to effectively build the lifeblood of the capital's water safety. "Wang Junwen, deputy director of the Beijing Water Resources Dispatch Center, said in an interview with reporters that according to the city's development strategy Planning, through scientific and reasonable dispatch and water-saving actions, by 2030, the city will improve urban and rural water supply security and aquatic ecosystems, achieve the goal of receiving and efficiently using 2.02 billion cubic meters of externally transferred water, and focus on promoting diversified guarantees for externally transferred water and The construction of the water transfer project system will effectively increase the happiness and gain of the masses.
It is understood that Beijing has promoted water conservation measures from five aspects.
——Strengthening the management and control of water affairs planning. Based on the overall situation of implementing the city's strategic positioning, easing non-capital functions, optimizing the layout of the capital city, developing high-end industries and promoting high-quality development, we insist on "determining cities with water, land with water, people with water, and production with water. "Principles to further strengthen the control of water planning space and water element indicators. Efforts should be made to strengthen water planning and control and water resource use control, and give full play to the role of water resources in restricting and guiding regional economic and social development.
——Strengthening planned water management. Strictly observe the upper limit of water resource consumption, strictly implement the total water consumption control, refine and clarify water withdrawal quotas for different industries and various industries, determine the water consumption in different districts and towns (streets), and strengthen planned water management and use control. Apply scientific and technological supervision methods, strengthen standardized management of machine wells, strengthen supervision and management of key water users, and strictly monitor daily water consumption measurement facilities, statistics and analysis of monitoring data, water balance test, and planned water use.
——Efforts to improve water efficiency. Formulate and improve the water-saving standard quota system, and strengthen the promotion and application of new water-saving technologies, new processes and new equipment. Promote industrial parks to carry out green transformation, upgrading and recycling with water conservation as the key content. Do a good job of urban water-saving and loss reduction, implement water-saving requirements into all aspects of urban planning, construction, and management, phase out domestic water appliances that are explicitly eliminated by the state, speed up the implementation of water supply pipe network reconstruction, and continuously reduce the leakage rate. Strengthen water-saving management of green areas, promote rain-fed plants, and promote refined management of green space irrigation.
——Continuously improve the water-saving mechanism. Scientifically build management water-saving, technology-saving water, institutional water-saving, policy water-saving, engineering water-saving system, establish and improve the government-led, industry-constrained, social co-government water-saving working mechanism and water-saving socialization, refinement, and scientific Management system.
-Actively create a social atmosphere. Take advantage of opportunities such as "World Water Day", "China Water Week" and "National City Water-saving Publicity Week" every year to make full use of various media means such as television, newspapers, Internet, radio, etc., in places with high traffic such as subway stations and airports Set up water-saving public welfare advertisements and carry out water-saving theme publicity activities.