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China Inclusive Financial Indicators Analysis Report (2018)

Source: People's Bank of China Website Release Time: 2019-10-23

Financial Consumer Rights Protection Bureau of the People's Bank of China

In order to implement the requirements of the Plan for the Promotion of Inclusive Financial Development (2016-2020) and the G20 Inclusive Financial Outcome Document, the People's Bank of China established an inclusive financial indicator system and reporting system in China at the end of 2016. The "China Inclusive Financial Indicator System" now includes 51 indicators of 21 categories in three dimensions: usage, availability, and quality, of which 8 indicators are collected through questionnaire surveys2. According to the results of the report in 2018, various localities adapted to local conditions and adopted multiple measures, creating many favorable conditions for the development of inclusive finance, and China's inclusive finance continued to develop steadily.

First, the coverage of financial services has been further improved, and the availability of basic financial services has been higher, especially the availability of financial services for residents in remote areas. Secondly, the innovation of financial products and services has achieved remarkable results, the speed of digital technology and financial integration has accelerated, the coverage of digital inclusive financial products and services has further improved, the ability to serve inclusive financial target groups has significantly improved, and the digital inclusive financial ecosystem has continued to improve. Third, the financial services of small and micro enterprises have been improved, and the service procedures for corporate bank accounts have been greatly optimized. The financing difficulties of small and micro enterprises have been further eased, and the inclusive small and micro loans have grown rapidly. Fourth, the construction of the credit system, the establishment of a non-litigation settlement mechanism for financial consumer disputes, and the popularization of financial education continued to advance steadily. Fifth, financial support for the people's livelihood and rural areas needs to be further strengthened.

I. Usage dimension

(I) Account and bank card usage

Bank settlement accounts and bank cards are widely available, and per capita holdings in the country and rural areas have continued to increase steadily. As of the end of 2018, there were 7.22 bank accounts per capita nationwide, an increase of 9.39% year-on-year; 5.44 bank cards per capita, an increase of 13.08% year-on-year (of which 0.49 per capita credit card and debit card). The eastern region has the highest per capita accounts and card holdings, while the central and western regions are slightly lower. As of the end of 2018, a total of 4.305 billion personal bank settlement accounts had been opened in rural areas, an increase of 8.55% year-on-year and 4.44 per capita. As of the end of 2018, the number of bank cards issued in rural areas was 3.208 billion, and the number of cards per capita was 3.31. Among them, there were 2.991 billion debit cards, a year-on-year increase of 11.13%; 202 million credit cards, a year-on-year increase of 15.6%.

The number of bank settlement accounts for corporate legal entities continued to grow steadily, and bank account service efficiency was further improved. As of the end of 2018, there were 42.628 million bank settlement accounts for corporate legal entities, a year-on-year increase of 12.41%. On July 22, 2019, the cancellation of corporate bank account licenses was completed across the country. The People's Bank of China guided and urged commercial banks to comprehensively optimize corporate account opening services and increase corporate account opening satisfaction through measures such as establishing green channels for account opening for small and micro enterprises, and promoting appointment opening services.

The number of transactions per bank card continued to grow rapidly. In 2018, the number of bank card transactions per capita nationwide was 150.75, an increase of 40.24% year-on-year, and the growth rate was 11.52 percentage points higher than the previous year. The bank card acceptance environment continued to improve, and the use scenarios were further expanded. The use of bank cards in central and western provinces increased rapidly. In 2018, the number of transactions per bank card in the Tibet Autonomous Region increased significantly due to the "One Card" subsidy fund for Huinong and the issuance of social security cards with financial functions, as well as the transformation of convenience scenarios such as buses and parking lots.

The rate of active account use increased slightly from the previous year. In 2018, 88.64% of adults in the country had active use accounts3, which was 1.58 percentage points higher than the previous year. One-third of the provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) had more than 90% of adults with active use accounts. The proportion of adults with active accounts in rural areas was 82.25%, 0.81 percentage points higher than the previous year. The distribution of various types of agricultural subsidies effectively promoted the popularization and use of bank cards and other accounts. The Changsha Central Sub-branch of the People's Bank of China deployed to strengthen supervision of the real-name system of accounts in the area under its jurisdiction, to clean up existing accounts, to cancel accounts for non-compliant existing accounts such as sleep accounts, and to increase the proportion of active accounts.

(B) the use of electronic payment

Electronic payment4 continues to develop rapidly, and the penetration rate of use continues to increase. In 2018, the proportion of adults using electronic payment nationwide was 82.39%, 5.49 percentage points higher than the previous year; the proportion of adults using electronic payment in rural areas was 72.15%, which was 5.64 percentage points higher than the previous year.

Various regions have actively and steadily pushed forward the development of modern payment tools such as mobile payments, and achieved good results. In particular, electronic payment in the central and western regions has been rapidly promoted. The Pratt & Whitney Financial Reform Pilot Area of Lankao County, Henan Province focuses on the three themes of “Prudential Coverage, Poverty Alleviation, and County Areas”, focusing on consolidating the financial infrastructure of inclusive finance, making full use of digital technologies, and developing the “Inclusive Practicing App” and establishing rural services Stand, realize the organic combination of online and offline, achieve the effect of reducing costs, promoting competition, and effectively improving the financial exhibition industry environment.

The Yinchuan Center Sub-branch of the People's Bank of China has promoted the construction of mobile payment convenience projects in the region. As of the end of 2018, five district-city mobile payment applications in the region have made breakthroughs in eight major scenarios including public transportation, medical treatment, vegetable markets, and public utilities. The Urumqi Central Sub-branch of the People's Bank of China has vigorously carried out the construction of mobile payment convenience demonstration projects, carried out pilot work in 12 prefectures, states, and cities across Xinjiang to promote the widespread application of mobile payment in the field of convenience payments. The Changchun Central Sub-branch of the People's Bank of China has vigorously promoted the "UnionPay Express" project, which effectively supports the acquisition of bulk agricultural and sideline products such as grain to achieve non-cash settlement throughout the process.

The non-cash payment business volume has grown steadily, and the non-bank payment institutions' network payment business volume has grown rapidly. In 2018, banking institutions across the country handled a total of 220.312 billion non-cash payment transactions, with a value of 3,876.67 trillion yuan, a year-on-year increase of 36.94% and 0.23%, respectively. In 2018, banking financial institutions processed 57.013 billion online payment services with an amount of 2126.3 trillion yuan, an increase of 17.36% and 2.47% year-on-year; mobile payment services amounted to 60.531 billion transactions with an amount of 277.39 trillion yuan, a year-on-year increase of 61.19% and 36.69%, the mobile payment business of banking financial institutions continued to maintain rapid growth. In 2018, non-bank payment institutions generated 530.61 billion online payment transactions with an amount of 208.07 trillion yuan, up 85.05% and 45.23% year-on-year respectively. As of the end of 2018, the number of online banking openings in rural areas totaled 612 million, a year-on-year increase of 15.29%. In 2018, the number of online banking payment transactions reached 10.208 billion, a slight increase compared to the previous year, with an amount of 147.46 trillion yuan. Compared to a slight decline. As of the end of 2018, the number of mobile banking opened in rural areas totaled 670 million, a year-on-year increase of 29.64%; in 2018, the number of mobile banking payment services was 9.387 billion, with a value of 52.21 trillion yuan, a year-on-year increase of 3.04% and 34.26%.

(3) Personal investment and wealth management

The proportion of adults who have purchased investment and wealth management 5 products continues to increase, and rural residents' awareness of investment and wealth management has increased rapidly. In 2018, an average of 47.81% of adults in the country purchased investment and wealth management products, which was 1.84 percentage points higher than the previous year's survey level; in rural areas, this percentage was 36.11%, which was 3.32 percentage points higher than the previous year's survey level.

Residents in economically developed areas have a strong sense of investment and wealth management. The proportion of adults who have purchased investment and wealth management products in Shanghai, Beijing, Tianjin, Zhejiang, Jiangsu and other provinces (cities) has exceeded 60%. In order to further expand the channels for farmers' investment and wealth management, Anhui Province continued to carry out the “Treasury Bonds Going to the Countryside Activities” throughout the entire jurisdiction. As of the end of 2018, the county-level sales of national bonds in Anhui Province were 2.877 billion yuan, a year-on-year increase of 7.47%.

(IV) Use of personal credit

The proportion of adults who have obtained loans is basically the same as that of the previous year, and the proportion of adults who have obtained loans at institutions and platforms other than banks is small. In 2018, the average number of outstanding personal loans to adults in the country was 0.51, of which the number of outstanding personal loans to adults in rural areas was 0.43, which were basically the same as the previous year. In 2018, the proportion of adults in the country who had obtained loans from banks was 39.88%, and that of rural areas was 34.62%; the proportion of adults who had obtained loans from institutions and platforms other than banks was 22.85%, and rural areas were 21.08%. Personal consumption loans continued to grow rapidly. As of the end of 2018, the nation's per capita personal consumer loan balance was 27089.4 yuan, a year-on-year increase of 19.54%.

(V) Utilization of micro- and micro-credit loans

In 2018, the People's Bank of China and relevant departments introduced a number of measures to guide financial resources to better serve small and micro enterprises, and to support the reasonable credit needs of small and micro enterprises. The inclusive small and micro loans grew rapidly. As of the end of 2018, the balance of inclusive small and micro loans was 8 trillion yuan, an increase of 18% year-on-year, an increase of 8.2 percentage points over the end of the previous year, an increase of 1.22 trillion yuan for the year, and an increase of 614.3 billion yuan year-on-year.

The People's Bank of China Tianjin Branch organized a "Financial Services Private Small and Micro Enterprises Hundred Days" activity, aimed at opening up the "last mile" of policy transmission. Hubei Province issued the "Opinions of the General Office of the Provincial People's Government on Deepening the Financial Services of Private and Small and Micro Enterprises by Implementing the" Thousands of Billion Gold Benefit Project ", which clearly states that by 2020, financial institutions will be promoted to serve the province's 1 million private and small and micro enterprises. The company's new inclusive loans will not be less than 100 billion yuan. Liaoning Province innovatively launched the "Shenyang City Small and Medium-sized Enterprise Microfinance Docking Platform" to promote the "credit + application" small and medium-sized enterprise financing service model in the Shenyang Pilot Free Trade Zone.

On November 1, 2018, the Business Management Department of the People's Bank of China and other relevant units launched the "Opinions on Further Deepening the Financial Services of Private and Small and Micro Enterprises in Beijing", from strengthening monetary policy support, strengthening policy synergies, and improving incentive and restraint mechanisms. Proposed 20 policies and measures to strengthen support for private and small and micro enterprises.

The People ’s Bank of China Hangzhou Center Branch and the Zhejiang Provincial Federation of Industry and Commerce jointly launched a “100 Presidents Entering Private Enterprises” visit in the province ’s financial system. As of the end of 2018, the People ’s Bank of China at all levels, the Federation of Industry and Commerce and financial institutions had visited private and small and micro enterprises 5,135 companies have collected 5,421 problems, 5,280 have been or partially resolved, and 44.8 billion yuan of financing needs have been resolved for private enterprises.

(VI) Utilization of business guarantee loans and student loans

Business-guaranteed loans grew rapidly, and student loans increased steadily. As of the end of 2018, the balance of business guarantee loans was 106.4 billion yuan, a year-on-year increase of 22.5%. As of the end of 2018, the balance of student loans was 105.1 billion yuan, a year-on-year increase of 13.1%. Gansu Province has established a “bank-policy linkage mechanism of“ fiscal financing, government responsibility linkage, and financial security promotion ”. It provides financial guarantees, interest discounts, and risk compensation to innovate and develop women ’s small secured loans and student-sourced student loans. Inclusive microfinance products have effectively improved the availability of credit. Shanxi Province took the lead in carrying out the electronic processing of student loan contracts, and further improved loan management and service levels.

(VII) Use of loans for production and operation by farmers

The production and operation loans of farmers increased steadily. As of the end of 2018, the balance of farmers' production and operation loans was 5.06 trillion yuan, an increase of 7.6% year-on-year, and the growth rate was 1.1 percentage points higher than the previous year.

Some provinces adapted measures to local conditions and increased credit support for rural revitalization. Chengdu, Sichuan Province, actively promotes the comprehensive reform of rural financial services, builds an integrated financial service platform for agriculture, rural areas, farmers, and farmers, and uses the “Internet +” approach to integrate “inclusive finance, credit systems, property rights transactions, and financial policies”, etc. Function, as of the end of 2018, 93 banks, guarantees and insurance institutions have been launched, the platform has more than 12,000 registered users, and 6,403 loans and 5.83 billion yuan have been issued online. The People's Bank of China Hohhot Center Sub-branch organized financial institutions throughout the region to launch a "hundred-day strategy for financial services and rural revitalization strategy". During the event, it was connected with leading agricultural and animal husbandry enterprises, family farms, professional cooperatives of farmers and herdsmen, large-scale farmers and other new business entities. With 2,302 farm and animal husbandry enterprises, it signed a bank-enterprise financing agreement of 27.5 billion yuan and granted loans of 11.5 billion yuan. The Nanning Central Branch of the People's Bank of China has taken Cenxi City, a district of Wuzhou as a pilot, to provide low-interest funds through re-loans, vigorously promote the construction of the rural credit system, and build a communication and cooperation platform between government, banks, and farmers to remove institutional barriers to the farmers' loan system.

(8) Utilization of Loans for Poor People

Loans for the poor and the people who have been lifted out of poverty have been steadily increasing. As of the end of 2018, the balance of loans for the poor and the people who had been lifted out of poverty by filing documents was 724.4 billion yuan, a year-on-year increase of 20.6%. The Nujiang Central Branch of the People's Bank of China promotes the integration of financial institutions' outlets, modern payment services, inclusive credit policies, and financial knowledge into Dulongjiang Township with the financial poverty alleviation concept of “strengthening and strengthening poverty alleviation by slices”. Tackling poverty and rejuvenating the rural areas, the entire dragon of the Dulong tribe was successfully lifted out of poverty. Focusing on industry-driven poverty alleviation in Shandong Province, Shandong Province launched a three-year special action (2018-2020) for central bank funds to accurately target industrial poverty alleviation. A total of 1.26 billion yuan of “central bank capital industry poverty alleviation loans” were issued throughout the year, driving 13,000 poor people.

(9) Use of insurance

Insurance density has increased. In 2018, the insurance density nationwide was 2274.49 yuan / person, an increase of 3.53% year-on-year; the insurance depth was 4.22%, 0.2 percentage points lower than the previous year. In recent years, the Shanghai insurance industry has actively innovated insurance products and services for small, medium and micro enterprises. The first (set) insurance of major technical equipment, the first application insurance of new materials, comprehensive patent insurance, patent pledge financing guarantee insurance, and technology enterprise entrepreneurship insurance Wait for breakthroughs in multiple types of insurance. In addition, it introduced loan guarantee insurance for technology-based small and medium-sized enterprises registered in Shanghai. As of the end of 2018, it provided a total of 6.832 billion yuan of loan support to 1,893 technology-based small and medium-sized enterprises through loan guarantee insurance, involving manufacturing, electronic information industries, etc. Multiple areas.

Availability dimension

(A) Availability of outlets

Bank outlets have covered most towns and villages, and the number of bank outlets per 10,000 people has increased slightly. As of the end of 2018, the coverage of townships and townships across the country reached 96.3%, which was the same as the previous year; the average number of bank outlets per 10,000 people was 1.65, a slight increase year-on-year.

The coverage of 70% of the province's bank outlets and townships has reached 100%, and the coverage of bank outlets and townships in Tibet, Qinghai and other regions has also improved, and financial services have continued to extend to remote agricultural and pastoral areas. The People's Bank of China has promoted the release of national standards such as "Basic Requirements for Banking Service Outlets" and "Guidelines for the Evaluation of Banking Service Outlets", optimizing the service environment of bank outlets, improving the efficiency of outlet services, and enhancing the people's sense of and satisfaction with inclusive financial services. Already, 60% of outlets across the country have achieved benchmarking. The People's Bank of China Wuhan Branch builds an "Information Sharing System for Financial Institutions", based on the Map Information System (GIS), and provides mobile phone APPs in the form of mobile phone APPs to provide authoritative information inquiry services for the branches of nearly 70,000 bank-secured financial institutions in the country, effectively improving Availability of financial services around you. The Jiangjin Center Sub-branch of the People's Bank of China collected information on the addresses and service categories of financial service outlets in its jurisdiction (Jiangjin District, Laoshan District), and produced a "financial map" to solve the problem of obtaining financial information.

(2) Availability of non-financial institutions with financing functions

The number of non-financial institutions with financing functions per 10,000 people is basically the same as the previous year. As of the end of 2018, the country had an average of 0.12 non-financial institutions with financing functions per 10,000 people, unchanged from the previous year. Many provinces have strengthened supervision of non-financial institutions with financing functions to improve their development quality.

(3) Availability of ATM and POS machines

The number of ATMs and POS machines per 10,000 people nationwide has steadily increased, and the acceptance market environment has continued to improve. As of the end of 2018, China has an average of 7.96 ATM machines per 10,000 people and an average of 244.72 POS machines per 10,000 people, a year-on-year increase of 15.2% and 9.07%. The People's Bank of China Lhasa Center Sub-branch actively guides the banking financial institutions in the area to increase the electronic transformation of manual branches at the grassroots level, rationally deploy self-service equipment, extend service channels, and expand the coverage and service scope of self-service outlets. The number of ATMs and POS terminals in the area The number has steadily increased.

(4) Availability of farmer's withdrawal points

The farmer's cash withdrawal service point has basically opened up the "last mile" of financial services, and the integration and development with e-commerce have achieved results. As of the end of 2018, there were 864,900 bank card cash withdrawal service points (including 206,100 loaded e-commerce functions) nationwide, covering 522,000 village-level administrative districts, covering 98.23% of village-level administrative districts, and providing village-wide services Points 1.63. In 2018, the agricultural service for cash withdrawals in rural areas handled a total of 463 million payments (including withdrawals, remittances, and agency payments), with a total amount of 361.869 billion yuan, basically unchanged from the previous year. In 2018, the number of payments per capita for bank card-assisted agricultural withdrawal services in rural areas was 0.48, an increase from 0.46 in the previous year.

The Chengdu Branch of the People's Bank of China actively promotes the “Payment for Agricultural Development Project” in Sichuan Province, focusing on solving the problem of full coverage of basic payment services in poor areas such as Ganzi and Liangshan. In 2018, a total of 801 blank administrative villages of basic financial services in poor areas were eliminated, in 2421. 3,220 service points have been set up at each relocation site, and financial service coverage has been continuously promoted to the “last mile”. At the end of 2018, the coverage rate of financial service village-level administrative regions was 99.08%, 0.2 percentage points higher than the end of the previous year. Jiangxi Province actively created a "rural inclusive financial service station", and initially formed a "village committee + inclusive financial service station", "fixed shops + inclusive financial service station", and "host organization + mobile service" as a supplement. The “Trinity” promotion model, the service pattern of “basic financial services not leaving the village and comprehensive financial services not leaving the town” have gradually formed. The Cangzhou City Sub-branch of the People's Bank of China has established a “payment green channel” for supporting, benefiting farmers, and facilitating farmers. Cangzhou has 3236 agricultural assistance points in poverty-stricken counties, of which 1,809 have been equipped with e-commerce functions, effectively promoting rural e-commerce. Deep integration with inclusive finance.

Third, the quality dimension

(1) Financial knowledge and financial behavior

Consumer financial knowledge and financial behavior scores all improved slightly from the previous year. The average national consumer financial knowledge score was 6.52 points, an increase of 0.12 points over the previous year; the average financial knowledge score in rural areas was 5.71 points, an increase of 0.19 points over the previous year. The national average score for consumer financial behavior was 6.35 points, an increase of 0.17 points over the previous year; the average score for financial behavior in rural areas was 5.84 points, an increase of 0.27 points over the previous year.

From the perspective of consumers' mastery of financial knowledge, consumers have better knowledge of savings, bank cards, and credit information, but they do not know much about new financial knowledge and more complex financial knowledge, especially insurance, Less mastery of loans, etc. From the perspective of financial behavior, most consumers will rationally choose financial products and services, cherish their credit records, and value financial education. However, consumers' capabilities in financial planning and investment risk handling are still lacking, and some consumers have a weak sense of risk responsibility. .

The People's Bank of China has coordinated and carried out centralized financial knowledge popularization activities, conducted consumer financial literacy questionnaire surveys, and promoted the integration of financial knowledge into the national education system.

In 2018, Guangdong Province continued to carry out the "South Guangdong Finance Spring Weather"-the popularization of financial knowledge into the curriculum, accumulatively entered 654 primary and secondary schools, and started classes in 2005.

The number of beneficiaries was about 200,000. The Haikou Center Branch of the People's Bank of China, Hainan Provincial Department of Education, and the Local Financial Supervision Bureau actively promoted the province's comprehensive development of financial knowledge into the national education system. As of the end of 2018, Hainan Province had 47 primary schools, 33 junior high schools, and 5 high schools take the lead. Financial knowledge is incorporated into the work of the national education system. There are 212 classes (including primary schools, junior high schools, high schools, and universities) offering financial education courses, and a total of 11,295 students are educated. Xining Central Branch of the People's Bank of China actively expanded financial knowledge into the pilot scope of the national education system, and selected Yushu Prefecture, Guoluo State, and Haidong City Sub-branch to form unique pilot models. Through “small hands and big hands”, it effectively improved adult finance. Literacy. The Urumqi Central Sub-branch of the People's Bank of China has set up 415 benchmarking and demonstration financial publicity and education bases in remote agricultural and pastoral areas and regiments across Xinjiang, as well as an "Internet + inclusive finance" online financial knowledge dissemination platform, "online + offline" The platform organizes more than 100,000 publicity sessions for more than 200,000 people at the grassroots level every year.

The Harbin Center Sub-branch of the People's Bank of China actively organizes financial institutions within its jurisdiction to launch "sinking financial knowledge" and other sinking theme activities aimed at improving farmers' financial literacy.

(B) Financial Services Complaints

The construction of a non-litigation resolution mechanism for financial consumer disputes has been fully rolled out, and the number of complaints accepted has increased rapidly, with the rate of settlement of complaints exceeding 90%. In 2018, branches at all levels of the People's Bank of China received a total of 33,824 financial consumer complaints, a year-on-year increase of 56.52%. From the perspective of complaints, financial consumer complaints are mainly concentrated in payment settlement management (accounting for 38.58%), bank cards (accounting for 26.3%), loans (accounting for 8.13%), credit management (accounting for 4.12%), savings (Accounting for 3.88%), electronic banking (accounting for 1.98%), and RMB management (accounting for 1.96%).

Shandong Province has promoted the establishment of a multi-faceted dispute resolution mechanism. The People ’s Bank of China ’s 17 prefectures, 18 counties (cities, districts) or the Financial Consumers ’Rights Protection Association established a lawsuit-docking mechanism with the local people ’s court. The litigation and mediation mechanism will be established at the provincial, city, and county levels. Nanning Central Branch of the People's Bank of China promoted the establishment of the first bilingual mediation room for cross-border financial consumer disputes between China and Vietnam. The Guiyang Central Sub-branch of the People's Bank of China continued to make in-depth deployment of "dandelion" financial voluntary service operations in its jurisdiction. A large number of financial consumer disputes were effectively resolved on the front line, and the "last mile" of financial consumer rights protection was promoted.

(3) Credit limit of bank cards

Bank credit card credit lines have steadily increased. As of the end of 2018, the average credit limit of bank cards was 22,400 yuan, a year-on-year increase of 5.66%.

(IV) Credit Construction

Credit construction has steadily advanced. In recent years, the People's Bank of China has continuously enriched and improved the basic database of financial credit information. The database has covered all licensed financial institutions. At the end of 2018, the natural number of people included in the National Financial Credit Information Basic Database was 980 million, an increase of 3.16% year-on-year, and the personal credit file filing rate was 84.47% .8 The number of corporate legal persons included in the National Financial Credit Information Basic Database was 25.828 million. Increased by 2.84% year-on-year. Through the construction of SMEs and rural credit systems, a total of 2.61 million SMEs and nearly 190 million farmers have established credit files.

All regions actively carry out credit creation activities to promote the role of credit in economic life. Suzhou City, Jiangsu Province has established a "corporate credit information base database + Suzhou integrated financial service platform" model to encourage the development of pure credit online products-"credit collection", with a single-family small and micro enterprise financing scale of no more than 5 million yuan. All approvals are submitted online, and loans are approved in seconds, and offline companies are no longer required to provide counter-guarantee and mortgage measures. As of the end of March 2019, the number of "credit collection" enquiries has reached 680,000, with a cumulative loan of 338 million yuan, and 209 applications for loan products have been approved. Ningbo City, Zhejiang Province, launched the Pratt & Whitney Financial Credit Information Service Platform to implement basic functions such as "information inquiry, financing matching, customer discovery, and performance management", integrating nearly 400 million useful pieces of information from 17 government departments and 63 financial institutions. It covers 920 thousand households of all kinds including private small and micro enterprises, among which farmers' credit filing rate has achieved 100% full coverage. The People's Bank of China Ningde City Sub-branch actively created the nation's first "sea credit fishing area", extended the "credit" creation from land to sea, and created the "Sanduao Credit Fishing Area". The People's Bank of China Tongchuan City Sub-branch takes Yijun County as a pilot to explore the implementation of poor trustworthy households, “build a comprehensive credit information rating system for farmers, accurately identify the cause of trustworthiness, improve and perfect the risk sharing mechanism, guide financial institutions to reshape the credit process, and guide the formation of cherished credit "Five-step method" of credit reconstruction work.

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