Statistical Monitoring Report of the "Outline of Chinese Women's Development (2011-2020)" in 2018
Source: National Bureau of Statistics Website release time: 2019-12-09
2019 年 12 月 National Bureau of Statistics December 2019
2011 — 2020 年）》（以下简称《纲要》）实施进程，国家统计局根据相关部门统计数据和资料，对《纲要》在健康、教育、经济、决策和管理、社会保障、环境、法律等七个领域 2018 年的实施情况进行了综合分析。 In order to fully reflect the implementation process of the Outline for the Development of Chinese Women ( 2011-2020 ) (hereinafter referred to as the "Outline"), the National Bureau of Statistics based on statistics and data from relevant departments, , Social security, environment, law and other seven areas of implementation in 2018 comprehensive analysis. The results show that the implementation of the Outline is progressing smoothly and most targets have been achieved in advance, but there are still gaps in individual indicators in some areas.
I. Implementation of the Outline
(A) Women and health.
孕产妇保健水平提高。 1. Improved maternal health. 年，孕产妇健康保健的各项指标继续提高，孕产妇住院分娩率自 2012 年起一直保持在 99% 以上的高水平。 In 2018 , various indicators of maternal health care continued to improve, and the hospital delivery rate of pregnant women has remained at a high level of more than 99% since 2012 . 年，住院分娩率为 99.9% ，与上年持平，高于 2010 年 2.1 个百分点；孕产妇系统管理率为 89.9% ，比上年略升 0.3 个百分点，比 2010 年提高 5.8 个百分点。 In 2018 , the hospital delivery rate was 99.9% , the same as the previous year and 2.1 percentage points higher than in 2010 ; the maternal system management rate was 89.9% , a slight increase of 0.3 percentage points from the previous year , and an increase of 5.8 percentage points from 2010 . 2010 年相比，孕产妇产前检查率、产后访视率等指标均有不同程度的提高。 Compared with 2010 , maternal prenatal check-up rate and postpartum visit rate have improved to varying degrees.
孕产妇死亡率持续降低。 2. Maternal mortality continues to decrease. 年，孕产妇死亡率 18.3/10 万，比上年降低 6.6% ，比 2010 年降低 39% ，优于中高收入国家的平均水平。 In 2018 , the maternal mortality rate was 18.3 per 100,000, a decrease of 6.6% over the previous year and a decrease of 39% over 2010 , which is better than the average level of middle- and high-income countries. 15.5/10 万和 19.9/10 万，分别比上年降低 6.6% 和 5.7% ，比 2010 年降低 47.8% 和 33.9% （见图 1 ）。 In the same period, the urban and rural maternal mortality rates were 15.5 / 100,000 and 19.9 / 100,000, respectively, a decrease of 6.6% and 5.7% over the previous year , and a decrease of 47.8% and 33.9% from 2010 (see Figure 1 ).
1 Figure 1 — 2018 年孕产妇死亡率情况 Maternal Mortality , 2010-2018
妇女生殖保健服务不断加强。 3. Women's reproductive health services have been continuously strengthened. The state implements basic free family planning technical service projects to popularize the knowledge of contraception, birth control and reproductive health, and improve reproductive health. 80% 以上。 The contraceptive rate of married women of childbearing age nationwide has remained above 80% . 2018 年底，农村妇女宫颈癌、乳腺癌检查已覆盖全国所有贫困县。 As of the end of 2018 , cervical cancer and breast cancer examinations for rural women have covered all poor counties across the country. 2010 年的 61.2% 上升到 2018 年的 75.5% ，提高 14.3 个百分点，比 2017 年提高 8.6 个百分点，但距《纲要》规定的“达到 80% 以上” After several years of low levels, women's common disease screening rate has increased significantly, from 61.2% in 2010 to 75.5% in 2018 , an increase of 14.3 percentage points, and an increase of 8.6 percentage points from 2017 , but it is far from the "Outline" " Achieved above 80% " 2 ）。 There is still a gap in the goals (see Figure 2 ).
2 Figure 2 — 2018 年妇女常见病筛查率情况 Screening rate of common diseases among women, 2010-2018
(B) Women and education.
女童接受学前教育的比重稳步提高。 1. The proportion of girls receiving preschool education has steadily increased. 年，全国学前教育（包括幼儿园和附设幼儿班）在园幼儿 4656.4 万人，其中女童 2176.7 万人，分别比上年增加 56.3 万人和 27.6 万人，比 2010 年增加 1679.7 万人和 824.1 万人；学前教育女童所占比重为 46.7% ，比 2010 年提高 1.3 个百分点。 In 2018 , there were 46.564 million preschool children (including kindergartens and pre-school classes) in the country , of whom 21.767 million were girls , an increase of 563,000 and 276,000 over the previous year , an increase of 16.797 million and 8.241 million over 2010 People; the proportion of girls in preschool education was 46.7% , an increase of 1.3 percentage points from 2010 . 2010 年的 56.6% 提高到 2018 年的 81.7% ，提高 25.1 个百分点。 The gross enrollment rate of preschool education rose rapidly, from 56.6% in 2010 to 81.7% in 2018 , an increase of 25.1 percentage points.
义务教育阶段性别差距基本消除。 2. The gender gap at the compulsory education stage has been basically eliminated. 年，九年义务教育巩固率为 94.2% ，比 2010 年提高 3.1 个百分点；小学学龄儿童净入学率接近 100% ，女童与男童无明显差距。 In 2018 , the nine-year compulsory education consolidation rate was 94.2% , which was 3.1 percentage points higher than in 2010 ; the net enrollment rate of primary school-age children was close to 100% , and there was no significant difference between girls and boys. 年，九年义务教育阶段在校生中女生所占比重为 46.5% ，近年来，该指标一直稳定在 46.4% — 46.6% 之间。 In 2018 , the proportion of girls in school during the nine-year compulsory education period was 46.5% . In recent years, this indicator has been stable between 46.4% and 46.6% .
高中阶段教育  中女生比重继续提高。 3. The proportion of girls in high school education  continues to increase. 年，高中阶段教育有女生 1865.4 万人，占全部在校生的 47.4% ，比 2010 年提高 0.3 个百分点；高中阶段教育毛入学率由 2010 年的 82.5% 提高到 2018 年的 88.8% ，提高 6.3 个百分点。 In 2018 , there were 18.654 million girls in high school education , accounting for 47.4% of all students in school , an increase of 0.3 percentage points from 2010 ; the gross enrollment rate of high school education increased from 82.5% in 2010 to 88.8% in 2018 , an increase of 6.3 Percentage points. 2015 年起已过半数， 2018 年为 50.8% ，比 2010 年提高 2.2 个百分点（见图 3 ）。 Among them, the proportion of female students in ordinary high schools has been more than half since 2015 , 50.8% in 2018 , an increase of 2.2 percentage points from 2010 (see Figure 3 ).
3 Figure 3 — 2018 年普通高中在校生中女生所占比重情况 The proportion of female students in ordinary high school in 2010-2018
女性接受高等教育水平提高。 4. Women's acceptance of higher education has improved. In recent years, China's higher education has developed rapidly and has generally entered the world's upper and middle levels. 2010 年的 26.5% 快速提高到 2018 年的 48.1% ，自 2015 年起就已提前实现“达到 40% ”的《纲要》目标。 The gross enrollment rate of higher education increased rapidly from 26.5% in 2010 to 48.1% in 2018. Since 2015 , the “Outline” target of “achieving 40% ” has been achieved in advance . 年，高等教育在校生中女研究生人数为 135.6 万人，占全部研究生的 49.6% ，与 2010 年相比提高 1.8 个百分点；普通本专科女生 1487.4 万人，占 52.5% ，提高 1.6 个百分点（见图 4 ）；成人本专科女生 350.9 万人，占 59.4% ，提高 6.2 个百分点。 In 2018 , the number of female postgraduates in higher education was 1.356 million, accounting for 49.6% of all postgraduates, an increase of 1.8 percentage points compared with 2010 ; 14.874 million girls in ordinary junior colleges , accounting for 52.5% , an increase of 1.6 percentage points ( (See Figure 4 ); 3.509 million female college students for adults , accounting for 59.4% , an increase of 6.2 percentage points.
4 2010 — 2018 年普通本专科在校女生人数及所占比重情况 Figure 4 Number of female college students and their proportion in general colleges from 2010 to 2018
(3) Women and the economy.
全社会就业人员中女性占比超过四成。 1. Women account for over 40% of all employed persons in society. Women's employment choices are more diversified, and the role of women in the sky is more prominent. 年，全国女性就业人员占全社会就业人员的比重为 43.7% ，比上年提高 0.2 个百分点，超过“保持在 40% 以上”的《纲要》目标。 In 2018 , the proportion of women employed in the country as a percentage of the total employed population was 43.7% , an increase of 0.2 percentage points from the previous year , and exceeded the "Outline" goal of "maintaining above 40% ."
农村贫困妇女人数大幅度减少。 2. The number of rural poor women has decreased significantly. 2300 元（ 2010 年不变价）的农村扶贫标准计算， 2018 年，全国农村贫困人口为 1660 万人，比 2010 年减少近 1.5 亿人，其中约一半为女性； 2018 年，农村贫困发生率为 1.7% ，比 2010 年降低 15.5 个百分点。 Calculated according to the rural poverty alleviation standard of an annual per capita income of 2,300 yuan (the constant price in 2010 ), in 2018 , there were 16.6 million rural poor people in the country , a decrease of nearly 150 million compared with 2010 , of which about half were women; in 2018 , rural poverty The incidence rate is 1.7% , which is 15.5 percentage points lower than in 2010 .
对贫困妇女的保障力度不断加大。 3. The protection of poor women has been increasing. The state has continuously improved the new social assistance system, increased protection for poor women, and the average standard of minimum living security in urban and rural areas has increased year by year. 年，城乡最低生活保障平均标准约为每月 490 元，比上年增加 40 元，与 2010 年相比增加 304 元；全国城乡享受低保和得到救助的农村特困人员共 4981.1 万人，其中女性 1985.1 万人，占比近 4 成。 In 2018 , the average standard of minimum living security in urban and rural areas was about 490 yuan per month , an increase of 40 yuan over the previous year , and an increase of 304 yuan compared to 2010. There were a total of 49.811 million rural poor people in urban and rural areas who enjoyed minimum living security and assistance. 19.851 million women , accounting for nearly 40 %.
(4) Women's participation in decision-making and management.
全国女人大代表和女政协委员占比均达历史最高水平。 1. Both the National Women's Congress and the CPPCC members accounted for the highest level in history. 742 名，占代表总数的 24.9% ，比上届提高 1.5 个百分点，是历届人大代表中女性比重最高的一届。 The 13th National People's Congress has 742 female deputies , accounting for 24.9% of the total number of deputies, an increase of 1.5 percentage points from the previous session, and the highest proportion of female deputies in previous sessions of the National People's Congress. 440 人，占委员总数的 20.4% ，高于上届 2.6 个百分点，也是历届政协委员中女性比重最高的一届（见图 5 ）。 The 13th National Committee of the CPPCC has 440 female members , accounting for 20.4% of the total number of members , which is 2.6 percentage points higher than the previous session . It is also the session with the highest proportion of women among previous CPPCC members (see Figure 5 ).
5 Figure 5 Proportion of female representatives from previous NPCs and female members of the CPPCC
女性积极参与企业经营管理。 2. Women actively participate in business management. 年，企业董事会中女职工董事占职工董事的比重为 39.9% ，企业监事会中女职工监事占职工监事的比重为 41.9% ，分别比上年提高 0.2 和 0.3 个百分点，与 2010 年相比分别提高 7.2 和 6.7 个百分点（见图 6 ）。 In 2018 , the percentage of female employee directors in the company's board of directors accounted for 39.9% of the employee directors, and the percentage of female employee supervisors in the company's supervisory board accounted for 41.9% of the employee supervisors, an increase of 0.2 and 0.3 percentage points from the previous year, respectively , compared with 2010 . Increase by 7.2 and 6.7 percentage points (see Figure 6 ).
6 2010 — 2018 年职工董事和职工监事中女性所占比重情况 Figure 6 Women's Proportion of Staff Directors and Staff Supervisors, 2010 — 2018
女性积极参与基层民主管理。 3. Women actively participate in grassroots democratic management. In recent years, women have widely participated in grass-roots democratic management, especially in the neighborhood organizations. 年，居民委员会成员中女性占比为 50.4% ，比上年提高 0.7 个百分点，已达《纲要》目标； 2018 年，村委会主任中女性占比为 11.1% ，比上年提高 0.4 个百分点。 In 2018 , the proportion of women in the residents' committee was 50.4% , an increase of 0.7 percentage points from the previous year , which has reached the Outline. In 2018 , the proportion of women in the directors of village committees was 11.1% , an increase of 0.4 from the previous year . percentage point.
(5) Women and social security.
女性生育保障水平提高。 1. The level of female maternity protection has improved. Maternity insurance affects the vital interests of female employees. In recent years, the number of women participating in maternity insurance has increased rapidly. 年，女性参加生育保险的人数达 8927 万人，比上年增加 499 万人，增长 5.9% ，与 2010 年相比，增加 3560 万人，增长 66.3% （见图 7 ）；女性参保人员占全部参保人员的比重为 43.7% ，与上年持平，比 2010 年提高 0.2 个百分点。 In 2018 , the number of women participating in maternity insurance reached 88.27 million, an increase of 4.99 million or 5.9% over the previous year , compared with 2010 , an increase of 35.6 million or 66.3% (see Figure 7 ); female participants The proportion of all insured persons was 43.7% , which was the same as the previous year and 0.2 percentage points higher than in 2010 .
7 Figure 7 — 2018 年女性参加生育保险人数情况 Number of women participating in maternity insurance from 2010 to 2018
女性基本医疗保险覆盖面继续扩大。 2. Women's basic medical insurance coverage continues to expand. 2018 年，全国女性参加基本医疗保险的人数超过 5.4 亿人，比上年增加 1926 万人，是 2011 年的 2.9 倍。 According to incomplete statistics, in 2018 , the number of women participating in basic medical insurance across the country exceeded 540 million, an increase of 19.26 million from the previous year , and 2.9 times that of 2011 . 1.5 亿人，比上年增加 643 万人，比 2011 年增加 3547 万人；女性参加城乡居民基本医疗保险的人数超过 3.9 亿人  ，比上年增加 1283 万人，是 2011 年的 5.2 倍。 Among them, the number of females participating in the basic medical insurance for urban employees was 150 million, an increase of 64.30 million over the previous year and an increase of 35.47 million over 2011 ; the number of females participating in the basic medical insurance for urban and rural residents exceeded 390 million  The annual increase is 12.83 million, which is 5.2 times that of 2011 .
更多女性享有基本养老社会保障。 3. More women enjoy basic social security for the elderly. 2018 年，参加基本养老保险的女性 4.3 亿人，比上年增加 4420 万人，比 2016 年  增加 8214 万人。 According to incomplete statistics, in 2018 , 430 million women participated in basic endowment insurance , an increase of 44.2 million over the previous year and an increase of 82.14 million over the previous year  . 1.9 亿人  ，比上年增加 958 万人，与 2010 年相比增加 7465 万人，增长 66.6% ；女性参加城乡居民基本养老保险的人数 2.4 亿人  ，比上年增加 3463 万人，与 2016 年相比增加 7210 万人，增长 42.3% 。 Among them, the number of females participating in the basic endowment insurance for urban employees was 190 million  , an increase of 9.58 million over the previous year, an increase of 74.65 million or 66.6% compared with 2010 ; and the number of females participating in the basic endowment insurance for urban and rural residents was 240 million.  , an increase of 34.63 million over the previous year, an increase of 72.1 million compared with 2016 , an increase of 42.3% .
女性参加失业保险和工伤保险的人数增加。 4. The number of women participating in unemployment insurance and work injury insurance has increased. In recent years, the number of women participating in unemployment insurance and work injury insurance has been increasing. 年，女性参加失业保险的人数为 8341 万人，比上年增加 392 万人，与 2010 年相比增加 3192 万人，增长 62% ；女性参加工伤保险人数 9313 万人，比上年增加 719 万人，与 2010 年相比增加 3614 万人，增长 63.4% 。 In 2018 , the number of women participating in unemployment insurance was 83.41 million, an increase of 3.92 million over the previous year , and an increase of 31.92 million compared with 2010 , an increase of 62% ; the number of women participating in work injury insurance was 93.13 million, an increase of 719 Ten thousand people, an increase of 36.14 million compared with 2010 , an increase of 63.4% .
(6) Women and the environment.
生态环境进一步改善。 1. The ecological environment has been further improved. 年，全国共建立国家级自然保护区 474 个，比上年增加 11 个，比 2010 年增加 155 个。 In 2018 , 474 national-level nature reserves were established nationwide , an increase of 11 over the previous year and an increase of 155 over 2010 . 2014 — 2018 年）资料，全国森林面积超过 2.2 亿公顷，比第八次清查时增加 1276 万公顷，森林覆盖率为 23% ，提高 1.3 个百分点。 According to the data from the "Ninth National Forest Resources Inventory" ( 2014-2018 ), the national forest area exceeded 220 million hectares, an increase of 12.76 million hectares compared with the eighth inventory, and the forest coverage rate was 23% , an increase of 1.3 percentage points.
城市环境继续向好。 2. The urban environment continues to improve. 年，全国人均公园绿地面积为 14.1 平方米，比 2010 年增加 2.9 平方米；城市建成区绿化覆盖率为 41.1% ，提高 2.5 个百分点；城市污水处理率为 95.5% ，提高 13.2 个百分点。 In 2018 , the per capita green area of parks nationwide was 14.1 square meters, an increase of 2.9 square meters over 2010 ; the green coverage rate of urban built-up areas was 41.1% , an increase of 2.5 percentage points; the urban sewage treatment rate was 95.5% , an increase of 13.2 percentage points. 年，城市生活垃圾无害化处理率由 2010 年的 77.9% 提高至 99% ，提高 21 个百分点，高于上年 1.3 个百分点。 In 2018 , the harmless treatment rate of municipal solid waste increased from 77.9% in 2010 to 99% , an increase of 21 percentage points, which was higher than 1.3 percentage points in the previous year .
农村环境整治力度加大。 3. Strengthening rural environment improvement. 2018 — 2022 年）》，为改善农村环境质量、优化农村人居环境提供了制度保障，美丽乡村建设扎实推进。 The "Strategic Plan for Rural Rejuvenation ( 2018-2022 )" issued by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council has provided institutional guarantees for improving the quality of the rural environment and optimizing the living environment of rural people, and the construction of beautiful countryside has been solidly advanced. 年，农村集中式供水受益人口比重达 86% ，比 2010 年提高 28 个百分点，在上年已“达到 85% 左右”《纲要》目标的基础上又向前推进了一步（见图 8 ）。 In 2018 , the proportion of the population benefiting from centralized water supply in rural areas reached 86% , an increase of 28 percentage points from 2010. On the basis of the "Outline of 85% " target in the previous year, we have taken a step forward (see Figure 8 ) .
8 Figure 8 — 2018 年全国农村集中式供水受益人口比重情况 Proportion of population benefiting from centralized water supply in rural areas, 2010-2018
(G) Women and the law.
保障妇女权益的法律体系不断完善。 1. The legal system for protecting women's rights and interests has been continuously improved. For a long time, China has continuously strengthened the protection of the rule of law for equality between men and women. At present, it has formed a constitution based on women's rights protection law as the main body, supplemented by various national laws and regulations, local regulations and government regulations to protect women's rights and interests. Legal systems that promote gender equality.
建立法规政策性别平等评估机制。 2. Establish a gender equality assessment mechanism for regulations and policies. 2018 年底，全国共有 30 个省（区、市）建立了法规政策性别平等评估机制，将男女平等价值理念引入法规政策的制定、实施和监督各环节，创建源头保障妇女权益、促进男女平等发展新机制。 As of the end of 2018 , a total of 30 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) across the country have established a gender equality evaluation mechanism for laws and regulations, introduced the concept of equality between men and women into the formulation, implementation and supervision of laws and policies, and created sources to protect women's rights and promote equal development of men and women New mechanism.
为妇女提供法律援助。 3. Provide legal aid to women. Relevant departments vigorously promote the construction of public legal service entities, hotlines, and online platforms, continuously expand the scope of protection of women's rights and interests, and gradually improve the legal aid and judicial assistance systems. 年，全国共建立省、市、县三级政府法律援助机构 3389 个，获得法律援助的妇女超过 36 万人次。 In 2018 , there were 3,389 government legal aid agencies at the provincial, city, and county levels , and more than 360,000 women received legal aid .
严厉打击拐卖妇女儿童犯罪。 4. Strictly crack down on the crime of trafficking in women and children. 2013 — 2020 年）》。 In order to severely crack down on the crime of trafficking in women and children, China has released the second anti-trafficking action plan, China's Action Plan Against Trafficking in Persons ( 2013-2020 ). Relevant departments have carried out various special actions to increase the rectification of the “buyer's market” for human trafficking and reduce the incidence of human trafficking at the source. 年，公安机关破获拐卖妇女案件 434 起。 In 2018 , public security organs cracked 434 cases of trafficking in women .
Second, the main problems in the implementation of the "Outline"
年是《纲要》的收官之年，截至 2018 年底，多数指标已实现《纲要》预期目标，但妇女常见病筛查率、村委会成员中女性比例、农村卫生厕所普及率等指标距《纲要》目标还有一定差距，逐步缩小城乡区域孕产妇死亡率的差距、提高女性接受职业教育比例等方面还需要付出很大努力。 2020 is the closing year of the Outline. As of the end of 2018 , most of the indicators have achieved the expected goals of the Outline, but the common disease screening rate for women, the proportion of women in village committee members, and the penetration rate of rural sanitary toilets, etc There is still a certain gap in the goals of the "Outline". It will take a lot of effort to gradually reduce the gap between urban and rural areas in terms of maternal mortality and increase the proportion of women receiving vocational education.
(I) The development gap between women's health status still exists.
Although China's maternal and child health has improved greatly, the contradiction of imbalanced development among regions still exists. 年，东部地区孕产妇死亡率为 10.9/10 万，西部地区为 25.2/10 万，西部是东部的 2.3 倍。 In 2018 , the maternal mortality rate in the eastern region was 10.9 / 100,000, the western region was 25.2 / 100,000, and the western region was 2.3 times the eastern region .
(2) The level of rural women's participation in politics needs to be improved.
年，村委会成员中女性所占比重为 24% ，虽然比上年提高 0.9 个百分点，也比 2010 年提高 2.6 个百分点，但距“达到 30% 以上”的《纲要》目标仍存在差距（见图 9 ）。 In 2018 , the proportion of women in village committee members was 24% . Although it was 0.9 percentage points higher than the previous year and 2.6 percentage points higher than in 2010 , there was still a gap from the "Outline" goal of "more than 30% " (See Figure 9 ).
9 Figure 9 — 2018 年村委会成员中女性比重情况 Women's Proportion of Village Committee Members from 2010 to 2018
： Note :
高中阶段教育包括普通高中、成人高中、普通中专、成人中专、职业高中和技工学校。  High school education includes ordinary high school, adult high school, ordinary secondary school, adult secondary school, vocational high school, and technical school.
女性参加城乡居民基本医疗保险的人数中未包括辽宁、吉林、安徽、海南、贵州、西藏、陕西等7省（区）新农合整合数据。  The number of women participating in the basic medical insurance for urban and rural residents does not include the integration data of NCMS in Liaoning, Jilin, Anhui, Hainan, Guizhou, Tibet, and Shaanxi.
年起城乡居民基本养老保险参保人数开始实行分性别统计。  Since 2016 , the number of urban and rural residents participating in the basic endowment insurance has begun to be analyzed by sex.
女性参加城镇职工基本养老保险的人数中未包括中央单位数据。  The number of women participating in the basic endowment insurance for urban employees does not include data from the central unit.
女性参加城乡居民基本养老保险的人数中，城镇未包括贵州、西藏数据，农村未包括西藏数据。  Among the number of females participating in the basic endowment insurance for urban and rural residents, data for Guizhou and Tibet are not included in cities and towns, and data for Tibet are not included in rural areas.